SHOTS OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING

1. INTRODUCTION

Scientific Writing (hereinafter written with PI only) is a task that must be done by every student who has been sitting in semester 6. PI has a weight of 2 credits. PI may be a scientific paper on the results of studies in the field (applicable), literature (theoretical), or a combination of both.

Field studies can be a practical work, internships, interviews, observation, study visits, and various other ways. Can be a comparative literature theory, development theory, the application of theory, proof theory, and so forth.

PI must be completed within 3 (three) months from the receipt of the Decree of the Rector of the University Gunadarma about the obligation to write PI for college students, and the appointment of Supervisor PI.

2. STRUCTURE OF PI

PI has a basic structure: (1) the existence of the problem, (2) the theories, and (3) solving the problem with these theories. In the preparation of the protease, the basic structure thereof, plus (a) Introduction (b) Cover and equipped with the formats that apply in each study program, such as field supervisor’s signature, Chairman of the Department, and Coordinator of Session PI. PI book also comes with a List of Figures, List of Tables, Table of Contents, Preface, Appendix, Abstract, Bibliography, and various other needs.

In the Introduction at least contain: (a) Background, (b) Limitation of issues, (c) The formulation of problem, (c) Objectives, (d) Research Methodology, and (e) Systematic Writing. At the Closing may contain Conclusions and Suggestions for the results of research he had done.

3. PEMBABAKAN WRITING

In essence, the PI consists of four chapters, namely (1) Introduction, (2) Basis Library (Theory), (3) Analysis and Discussion, and (4) Closure. However, these pembabakan could be developed, for example in Chapter 3, Analysis separated by discussion, or completed a chapter on Current Business Activities under investigation, or the Working Procedures that are still applicable today, and so forth.

4. CHAPTER INTRODUCTION

In the introductory chapter, Researcher / Writer must be able to focus on writing problems that occur in the research. By reading this introductory chapter, each reader has to know what exactly will be done by the researcher in his research.



order to more clearly

for the next article,

take a sample of business units pharmacy

which will be computerized administration (applicative)

4.1. Background

In the background problems described, what are the constraints faced by the pharmacy manager in carrying out its activities. Perhaps the constraints faced are (a) lack of personnel, (b) the employee is often absent, (c) lack of cash register machines and personnel, (d) the difficulty of making financial reports per day, (e) difficulty in calculating the stock of goods, (f) difficulties in data collection customers, especially customers who use a recipe, and so forth. So, in the background of this problem described the difficulties faced by the pharmacy manager (business unit under study) is being observed.



Note: So, in this section do not have a description of the computer or anything else related to solving the problem, because it is still in the stage of explanation problem

problems facing .


4.2. Limitation Problem

Of course, of the many problems facing the pharmacy can not be resolved entirely (especially with computer science). Thus, the contents of limitations issue is the selection of which issues will be resolved with this PI.

For example, limits the problem is, this PI will be limited to the problem of difficulty in making financial reports as of today, customer data collection, and count stock of medications.

4.3. Problem Formulation

From the boundary problem that has been selected, formulated the problem with the sentence asked. With the sentence said, it is hoped readers know better which direction this PI will be herded.

The formulation of the problem is: how to design a computerized system to solve the problem of making financial reports as of today, customer data collection, and count stock of medications at the pharmacy?.

From here the reader will know that the PI was written to make the design of computerized systems in order to solve the problems mentioned above.

4.3. Research Objectives

Of course, the purpose of this research is to solve the problem (which has been limited) above. However, other goals (positive effect of system design) may be written. For example, it is hoped will improve the quality of service. With the increasing quality of service, so customers will feel satisfied, and it is expected customers will increase which can increase pharmacy revenue.

4.4. Research Methodology

Contains the research methodology of how we conduct research. For example, research was conducted through field study that is by observation, interviews, questionnaires, and so forth.

Research is also conducted by reading books about the theory of system design, finance, perapotekan, and examples of cases that resemble the case will be discussed.

4.5. Systematics Writing

Here is described on pembabakan writing, Chapter 1 of what, Chapter 2 of what, and so on. Pembabakan is made selogis (sorted) as possible.

5 CHAPTER BASIS THEORY

In this chapter revealed the theories used by authors to solve the problem. Apart from theory, can also be included tools ( tools ) system design, however tools is only used as a complement, its main theories have put forward.

Suppose, on the theory that this discussion is what it needs to be submitted financial reports?, What shape?, What does it say?. Then, what is a stock?, How to manage stock?, And various theories is needed.

As for tools them, can form images of DFD, ERD, flowchart , as well as statements or the explanation of the programming language used (only as needed )



So in PI do not have a description of the software, for example Visual BASIC described sheets, ranging from history to the explanation of the its icons, even the main theory there is no or only a little. Sufficient explanation of the Visual BASIC on usability and minimal computer configuration that can use the this software.

6. CHAPTER ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION

In this chapter are described in trace (logical) on the troubleshooting steps taken. Could begin by analyzing the problem (in the sub-chapter problem definition), why the problem could happen, what barriers are, and what steps completion. Furthermore, process or procedure or the steps of completion of the sub-chapter problem formulation.

7. CHAPTER CONCLUSION

In this concluding chapter, it is the conclusions and suggestions. The conclusion is the answer about “whether the discussion that has been done to solve the problem?.” The answer must be honest (in accordance with scholarly norms.) Advice contained about things that can be developed from this PI has been finished. Suggestions also can contain about the refinement of the PI for any reason can not be done perfectly here (for example, the pharmacy should have a standard paper format to print the daily financial reports for printing to save ink printers and faster, and so on).

8. APPENDIX

Appendix contains files that are supporting research and writing, for example can be listing program, print-out report, lay out on the computer monitor, an approval letter in pharmacy research, and so forth.

9. EXPERIENCE ERROR

Here will be explained about the mistakes that are often done by the students based on our experience in guiding and testing the PI for this.

9.1. Using pronouns

There are still many who write PI as writing a book (in this case, the author invites the reader to think or learn to him), for example in sentences:

(A) As we all know there ………..( word “we”)

(B) In this case, the authors believe that ….. (The word “author”)

(C) Can you see here ………………………….. (The word “you”)

So, do not use the pronoun. To prevent that, use the passive voice, for example in (c) Can be seen here …., and so on.

9.2 Using the word orders

Do not use the word or phrase in the PI who makes the command as if the reader is’ murid’ her. Suppose that in a sentence:

(A) See, that based on …….( no word command “Look”)

(B) For that, click the mouse was there ….( twice the word “click-is)

Again, use the passive voice, say “Seen, that based on …” for all the writing is done alone by the author PI.

9.3. The use of syllable “at”

There are still many who do not understand when the syllable “at” should be used as a pointer, or a preposition, so that many who wrote:

(A) The statement above is correct ……. (“In” combined with words)

(B) therefore, must be done ………..(” in “a split with words)

which should be written: (a) above, and (b) is done.

“In” are divided by the next word when he showed me where, for example in Jakarta, in addition, here, and the like.

9.4. Explain the development of computer prowess in Background

As we write the problem in the background of the problem, do not we talk about all things related to solving a problem or that there is no direct connection with the problem. So, the story of such rapid development of computers, and stuff we need not write, because the development of computers is not ours.

9.5. Same conclusion as the one in the Background

Many who write everything in kesimpulam was only repeating the writing ever in the background or in another part of the problem. In fact, the conclusion is anything new we get after we do the research.

Like watching a movie, then the conclusion of a film is the film good, mediocre, or not good. So is the PI, the conclusion is an explanation of good (as expected to solve the problem), mediocre (not all as expected), or not good (at all does not help solve the problem).

9.6. Software a ‘peeled out in the Platform for Theory’

Software (for example, Visual BASIC), not a theory. So it should, software do not need to be included anywhere, be it in the title of the writing, as well as in the theory. Moreover, software is obtained from the hijack (violating IPR), if not software pirated, it is necessary to obtain the licenses listed in the appendix.

If it is to support the writing, software must be included (and licensed), then briefly jjelaskan only (about 1 paragraph) about the benefits software are for research. So do not shelled out ranging from history to icons provides.

10. STRATEGY FORMULATION PI

To sort the PI required a specific strategy, both strategies in physical factors and strategies in the mental factor. For the physical strategy, do not need to be explained here, hopefully students in good health and good at wal afiat maintain health during the writing of PI and so on.

The non-physical strategies will be explained below.

10.1. Intention

Any activity that requires mental readiness should be preceded by intention. Intention is full of self-awareness that we will do something to mobilize all abilities themselves (think and act) to achieve what we want, which is set PI.

With the intention, of course our thoughts (wherever we are) will focus on the preparation of the PI and act (behave) to support the completion of the preparation of these PIs.

10.2. Determine the subject

The next step is to determine the subject. There are several ways in the selection of subjects, among others (1) the preferred subjects, (2) hobbies, (3) attention, and so forth.

In the preferred subject (at least it gets good marks), more or less will help in finding the subject. In the examples of problems, there are many who could be a problem that can be created for the program with the programming language to solve the problem (PI applicative)

In the hobby, of course there is also a problem that can be raised to be a problem in the PI. Let’s play chess hobby, we can make to learning chess program for beginners (eg only the steps that are allowed from each chess pawns), or make website to exchange thoughts antarpenghobi chess, and so forth.

At attention, what has been the center of our attention?. Suppose the field of health, or education of children under five, the field of security, and so forth. In the field of education of children under five for example, we can make software support for their learning, for example displaying the pictures of animals and her voice.

Can also our attention to the business areas of transportation, for example how to establish travel routes for efficient transport companies get higher profits, and so forth.

If all the above is still difficult, it is a simple way to get the subject is by visiting the library to read books, or simply read the PI-PI-class brothers who are complete. From there, take one of the themes of the thousands of existing PIs, but overall the writing should not be cheating (plagiarism). Take the theme, look at his advice (for the next researcher) and further develop our thinking that there is new thinking that came out of our own thinking (there is our contribution in our protease inhibitor which is a continuation of research of previous investigators).

10.3. Continuous concentration

PI settlement would be better if not terjedanya our concentration on things other than the PI. Suppose be paused (paused because surely will be lectures, exams, etc..) Still have to think of PI and should always make time to prepare (eg at night). One day we just do not think PI is difficult for us to start again, so there is a figurative “three weeks we waste writing, then we’ll start writing again in three years later.”

10.4. Set aside money for snacks

Not cheap set PI, but the result (if successful) will not be paid off feeling happy. Therefore, do not overload a parent, start by setting aside money for snacks. Use the pocket money to buy paper, ink printer , books, and everything that supports the PI.

We can not hope, every article that we make (and have us print) there is no correction of the supervisor. We also can not expect that one print will be smooth printed (and sometimes still there is something wrong, less pages, dirty, and so on.)

10.5. Be strong theory, and strengthened mentally to be ready to argue

Testing not only during the exam session of PI, but when designing a PI, we already have to deal with faculty mentors. One way to know PI lecturers made by the students earnestly guidance (not a cheat or made to others) is to test it.

Testing was also not without other cause, because each supervisor was also asked by the coordinator of the value PI section of the University. So, to give a reasonable value for his guidance, the supervisor also tested (during the process of preparation).

10.6. Ashamed of myself

Indeed, of the several hundred or even thousands of students who compiled the PI in the same time, not all monitored, so that there are also good students who want to own. For example, asked for a friend, or buy the provider of the preparation of PI, even cheated out (plagiarism).

Will it be detrimental to the supervisor or the University?, Directly will not hurt, it hurt for the students concerned, because it violates the scientific principle that is honest and responsible, which would certainly held accountable for later in the hereafter.

Therefore, malulah to myself if we do those things that are forbidden by God Almighty, among others, cheating, tricking other people, and torture myself.

11. CONCLUSION

So a little review from us, may be useful. If there are any suggestions or questions, please e-mail us, God willing, we will answer or we add at this writing. Thank you for your attention.

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